A Selective Bibliography compiled in conjunction with LACUNY Institute 2000

Compiled by Jane Devine and Francine Egger-Sider
Edited by Louise Fluk
Fiorello H. LaGuardia Community College




This bibliography is a selected list of materials, print and electronic, on the concept of information literacy and on the challenges of implementing an information literacy program. The literature on information literacy is vast and burgeoning as the information literacy movement begins to make headway in its effort to become part of academic culture. Hence, this bibliography is limited to materials published in the last 10 years, omits most of the extensive literature on practical teaching techniques and most of the materials which are devoted to description of programs or activities at a single educational institution. The items listed here are chiefly conceptual, definitional, organizational–truly about "laying the foundations," the theme of LACUNY Institute 2000 on information literacy. In addition, to complement the panel discussions of the Institute, the compilers have placed materials on "Partnerships with faculty/Collaborations" and "Assessment" in separate sections, although these topics are also referred to in materials listed in other sections of the bibliography.

The main body of the bibliography is preceded by a section of "Core Documents," listed in chronological order to trace the institutional history of the information literacy movement. The final sections list "Resources" for further discussion and reading; key "Organizations"; and important "Projects" implementing librarians’ information literacy goals.

We would like to thank the members of the LACUNY Institute Committee for the opportunity to work on this project. We would also like to express appreciation to Chief Librarian Professor Ngozi P. Agbim and all of the staff at the LaGuardia Community College Library for their support and tolerance during the compilation of this bibliography. Many helped us directly and many more took on extra tasks in the Library and made other accommodation to allow us to complete the work.

Jane Devine
Francine Egger-Sider
Louise Fluk

May 2000


CORE DOCUMENTS (in chronological order)

Association of College and Research Libraries. Bibliographic Instruction Sect. "Model Statement of Objectives for Academic Bibliographic Instruction: Draft Revision." College & Research Libraries News 48.5 (1987): 256-261.

Available: <>.

This document is "intended to serve as a statement of general direction for practicing librarians to review when examining current instructional programs or developing the keystones of new programs." It was approved by the Board of Directors of the Association of College and Research Libraries and the American Libraries Association Standards Committee and has not been superseded.

American Library Association. Presidential Committee on Information Literacy. Final Report. Chicago: Amer. Lib. Assn., 1989.

Available: <>.

A foundational document of the information literacy movement, this report provided the first formulation of the widely-used ALA definition of information literacy.

Dusenbury, Carolyn, et al. Read This First: An Owner’s Guide to the New Model Statement of Objectives for Academic Bibliographic Instruction. Chicago: Assn. of Coll. and Res. Libraries, 1991.

After the acceptance of the Model Statement of Objectives and Guidelines for Bibliographic Instruction [cited above] in 1988, Cerise Oberman, as Vice-Chair/Chair Elect of the ACRL Bibliographic Instruction Section, appointed a Task Force on Access to the Model Statement. This publication is a result of the work of the Task Force and is a very useful document to demystify the goals of the Model Statement.

Bruce, Christine Susan. "Information Literacy Blueprint." Griffith U, Div. of Information Services Home Page. 1994, last modified: 30 Oct. 1996. Griffith U, Div. of Information Services. 10 May 2000. 


This document, "currently under review," provided the theoretical and strategic bases for the establishment of the highly-regarded information literacy program at Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia. [See also Bruce items on p. 4,5 below.]

Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools. Commission on Higher Education. Characteristics of Excellence in Higher Education: Standards for Accreditation. Rev. ed. Philadelphia: Middle States Assn. of Colleges and Schools, 1994.

This guide for educational institutions applying for accreditation or re-accreditation contains the first statement by an accrediting agency that information literacy is a necessary element of a college education: "Each institution should foster optimal use of its learning resources through strategies designed to help students develop information literacy . . . It is essential to have an active and continuing program of library orientation and instruction . . ." (p. 15).

---. Information Literacy: Lifelong Learning in the Middle States Region: A Summary of Two Symposia. Philadelphia: Middle States Assn. of Colleges and Schools, 1995.

In the wake of its 1994 call for all institutions to demonstrate progress toward information literacy programs [in Characteristics of Excellence, cited above], the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States accreditation agency co-sponsored two symposia in 1995 with the National Forum on Information Literacy and the Association of College and Research Libraries. This summary of the discussions at the symposia was published to be a guide for institutions working on information literacy initiatives.

Association of College and Research Libraries. Instruction Sect. Instruction Task Force. "Guidelines for Instruction Programs in Academic Libraries." College & Research Libraries News 58.4 (1997): 264-266.

Available: <> and: <>.

Final version as approved by the Association of College and Research Libraries and the American Library Association on July 9, 1996. Includes guidelines for program design, human resources, and institutional support (facilities, budget, professional development).

National Forum on Information Literacy. "A Progress Report on Information Literacy: An Update on the American Library Association Presidential Committee on Information Literacy Final Report." Reports & Programs. Mar. 1998. Natl. Forum on Information Literacy. 11 Apr. 2000. 


Review of progress made toward each recommendation in the 1989 report of the American Library Association Presidential Committee on Information Literacy [cited above]. Includes suggestions for additional initiatives and an excellent annotated bibliography.

Information Literacy Standards for Student Learning: Linking the Library Media Program to the Content Areas. Prepared by the American Association of School Librarians and the Association for Educational Communications and Technology. Chicago: Amer. Lib. Assn.; Washington, DC: Assn. for Educational Communications and Technology, 1998. [not seen by compilers]

The nine AASL/AECT "Information Literacy Standards for Student Learning" were adopted in 1996. Discussion of implementation through collaborations and learning communities may be found on the AASL home page at <>. For a related discussion, see "Pathways to Knowledge" by Violet Harada and Ann Tepe in Teacher Librarian, 26:2 (1998), p9+.

"Information Literacy: A Position Paper in Information Problem Solving." Developed by Wisconsin Educational Media Association . . . with additional scenarios by Paula Montgomery. 13 Apr. 1999. ED376817. Amer. Assn. of School Librarians. 3 Apr. 2000 


This position paper, developed in 1993, makes the proposition that mastering information problem-solving skills will prepare students for an information-based society and workplace. Students will learn these skills with the help of both teachers and librarians if information

literacy is part of core curricula. The paper goes on to define how this process works and suggests scenarios to illustrate the process. This AASL Position Paper has been adopted by the National Forum for Information Literacy.

Association of College and Research Libraries. Task Force on Information Literacy Competency Standards. "Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education: The Final Version, Approved January 2000." College & Research Libraries News 61.3 (2000): 207-215.

Available: <>.

Defines five standards and details performance indicators and measurable outcomes for each. Includes history of the standards, bibliography, assessment materials.



Arp, Lori. "Information Literacy or Bibliographic Instruction: Semantics or Philosophy?" RQ 30.1 (1990): 46-49.

Although somewhat dated, this article still seems very relevant as it places the concept of information literacy within a political context, tying it to the literacy movement and making it a link between libraries and the "nonlibrary world."

Baker, Betsy, and Mary Ellen Litzinger, eds. The Evolving Educational Mission of the Library. Chicago: Assn. of Coll. and Res. Libraries, 1992.

This volume is the result of a second Think Tank organized by the Bibliographic Instruction Section of ACRL in 1989. (Think Tank I refers to the Preconference on Library Instruction held by the American Library Association Bibliographic Instruction Section in San Francisco in 1981. A collection of papers written by participants in Think Tank I appeared in 1987, entitled Bibliographic Instruction: The Second Generation and edited by Constance A. Mellon. (Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited)). Three recommendations were endorsed by all participants in Think Tank II: 1. Link BI with information literacy. 2. Strengthen the library education mission. 3. Reward leadership within the profession. Excellent articles by Donald Kenney, Elizabeth Frick, Lizabeth A. Wilson, James Shedlock, Maureen Pastine and Linda Wilson, Hannelore Rader and William Coons, Martha L. Hale, and William Miller.

Barclay, Donald, ed. Teaching Electronic Information Literacy: A How-to-Do-It Manual. How-to-Do-It-Manuals for Librarians. 53. New York: Neal-Schuman, 1995.

This manual encompasses how to use technology to teach and how to teach the technology now prevalent in libraries. Each section is written by a different expert in the field.

Behrens, Shirley J. "A Conceptual Analysis and Historical Overview of Information Literacy." College & Research Libraries 55.4 (1994): 309-322.

This article undertakes to analyze the expansion of the various definitions of the concept "information literacy" since the 1970's and what the library and information science profession is doing to promote understanding of the importance of information literacy among its new graduates. A thorough, well-documented article.

Bjorner, Susan N. "The Information Literacy Curriculum: A Working Model." Iatul Quarterly 5.2 (1991): 150-160.

This articles deals with "what should be taught, who should teach it, when and how it can be taught." A difficult article to read but a must for instruction librarians who need curriculum models for information literacy across the disciplines.

Branch, Katherine, and Debra Gilchrist. "Library Instruction and Information Literacy in Community and Technical Colleges." RQ 35.4 (1996): 476-483.

The authors describe the instruction tradition in community and technical colleges as being exceptionally strong because of their varied student population and their primary mission focused on teaching and learning. A valuable article on the ever expanding role of instruction in community colleges.

Branch, Katherine, and Carolyn Dusenbury, eds. Sourcebook for Bibliographic Instruction. Chicago: Bibliographic Instruction Section, Assn. of Coll. and Res. Libraries, 1993.

A working document for new bibliographic instruction librarians. Provides guidance in setting up a bibliographic instruction program, emphasizing learning theories, instructional design, specific teaching methods, and evaluation techniques. Includes articles by Katherine Branch, Lori Arp, Randall Hensley, Mignon Adams, and Esther Grassian with useful bibliographies at the end of each chapter.

Breivik, Patricia Senn. Student Learning in the Information Age. Amer. Council on Educ./Oryx Press Ser. on Educ. Phoenix, AZ: Amer. Council on Educ./Oryx, 1998.

This practical book provides the rationale, models, and tools for implementing campus information literacy programs that will make students "independent lifelong learners" through resource-based learning. Breivik gives general and discipline-specific models, discusses the need to "sell" the program and to promote campus-wide collaboration, and addresses assessment issues.

Breivik, Patricia Senn, and E. Gordon Gee. Information Literacy: Revolution in the Library. Amer. Council on Educ./Macmillan Ser. on Higher Educ. New York: Amer. Council on Educ./Macmillan, 1989.

Writing primarily for academic administrators, Breivik and Gee emphasize the role of information literacy in lifelong learning. A classic work in the field to this day.

Bruce, Christine Susan. "Information Literacy: A Framework for Higher Education." Australian Library Journal Aug. 1995: 158-170.

This excellent articles analyzes the potential outcomes of information literacy education through a careful analysis of the characteristics of an information literate person, the nature of information literacy education, and the role of everyone involved in making students information literate. This theoretical framework is the first part of Bruce’s 1994 "Information Literacy Blueprint" of Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia [cited on p. 1 above, under "Core Documents"].

—. The Seven Faces of Information Literacy. Adelaide: Auslib Press, 1997. [not seen by compilers]

A seminal work on information literacy in higher education by the author of the "Information Literacy Blueprint" of Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia [cited on p. 1 above, under "Core Documents"].

Carr, Jo Ann. Information Literacy and Teacher Education. ERIC Digest 97-4. Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Teaching and Teacher Educ., 1997. ED424231. Available: 


Carr deals with the issues of information literacy for teachers. She argues that teachers cannot adequately prepare their students unless they themselves know how to find and use information.

Colwell, Rita. "Beyond Barcodes: Wisdom in the Age of Information." National Science Foundation Office of the Director Home Page. 29 Apr. 1999. Natl. Science Foundation. 3 Apr. 2000 


This presentation to the National Press Club by the Director of the National Science Foundation extols the benefits that information technology offers but concludes that true "information empowerment" takes skill, not just technology. Colwell believes that information literacy should be as basic as learning to read.

Dewald, Nancy, et al. "Information Literacy at a Distance: Instructional Design Issues." Journal of Academic Librarianship 26.1 (2000): 33-44.

An excellent introduction to the problems of imparting information literacy to distance education students. The authors address the topics of technology as it pertains to distance education, active learning in distance information literacy instruction, and how to assess information literacy outcomes.

Eadie, Tom. "Immodest Proposals: User Instruction for Students Does Not Work." Library Journal 15 Oct. 1990: 42-45.

A critical look at "user education." Is it really cost-effective, is it really pedagogically sound, how does it stand up to one-on-one instruction at the reference desk? This thought-provoking article triggered responses by Fred Roecker of Ohio State University, Barbara K. Stripling, a library media specialist, Michael Gorman, and Hannelore B. Rader. Their responses to Eadie’s condemnation of BI can be found in Research Strategies 10.3 (1992): 104-121.

Eisenberg, Michael B., and Robert E. Berkowitz. The Big6: The Big6 Skills Information Problem-Solving Approach. 25 Feb. 2000. 3 Apr. 2000 


This Web site, aimed at educators and administrators alike, describes the components of the "basic 6" model of research (task definition, information seeking strategies, location and access, use of information, synthesis, and evaluation) and how to integrate it into K-12, college, and training curricula to teach information and technology skills.

Eisenberg, Michael B., and Doug Johnson. Computer Skills for Information Problem-Solving: Learning and Teaching Technology in Context. ERIC Digest ED-IR-96-04. Syracuse, NY: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information & Technology, Syracuse U, 1996. ED392463.

Available: <>.

The authors suggest a curriculum outline that can incorporate both computer literacy and information literacy skills into one integrated "information problem solving process." This approach requires that librarians, computer teachers, and classroom teachers work together to create lessons that include computer skills, general information skills, and subject area content. The authors rely on the "Big Six Skills" approach developed by Eisenberg and Robert E. Berkowitz [see Web site cited above].

Engeldinger, Eugene A. "Frustration Management in a Course-Integrated Bibliographic Instruction Program." RQ 32.1 (1992): 20-24.

A very practical article on the pitfalls of establishing bibliographic instruction programs and some clear suggestions and guidelines on developing an instruction philosophy.

Ercegovac, Zorana, and Erika Yamasaki. Information Literacy: Search Strategies, Tools and Resources. ERIC Digest. Los Angeles: ERIC Clearinghouse for Community Colleges, 1998. ED421178.

Available: <>.

This article discusses the challenges posed by the development of information literacy programs. Ercegovac has developed a Search Strategies, Tools & Resources (ST&R) program to help students learn to become better information seekers and users.

Farmer, D. W., and Terence F. Mech, eds. Information Literacy: Developing Students as Independent Learners. New Directions for Higher Educ. 78. San Francisco: Jossey, 1992.

This collection of essays centers around the concepts of information literacy and resource-based learning to make students lifelong independent learners. Among many impressive contributions, it includes a presentation by Howard Simmons, Executive Director of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools, explaining the accreditation agency’s position on the importance of information literacy.

Hardesty, Larry, Jamie Hastreiter, and David Henderson, eds. Bibliographic Instruction in Practice: A Tribute to the Legacy of Evan Ira Farber. Library Orientation Ser. 24. Ann Arbor: Pierian, 1993.

Under the leadership of Head Librarian Evan Ira Farber, Earlham College in Richmond, Indiana, hosted eight Bibliographic Instruction (BI) conferences between 1977 and 1986. From 1984 to 1992, Eckerd College in St. Petersburg, Florida, hosted five more. This book is based on the 5th Earlham College-Eckerd College Bibliographic Instruction conference held in February, 1992 and covers all current aspects of bibliographic instruction. Farber, a pioneer in the field, gave the keynote address, describing the BI program at Earlham College. Other sections include departmental approaches to BI, working with classroom faculty, and an annotated bibliography of selected readings published 1980 to1992. A very informative addition to the topic of bibliographic instruction.

Herrington, Verlene J. "Way Beyond BI: A Look to the Future." Journal of Academic Librarianship 24.9 (1998): 381-386.

Herrington argues that traditional library instruction programs are not effective. In their place should be a new approach which would work in two ways. First, librarians should be involved in designing systems that are easy to use without instruction. Information literacy skills can then be built into the system along with aids to assist in Boolean searching.

Humes, Barbara. Understanding Information Literacy. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research, Natl. Inst. on Postsecondary Educ., Libraries and Lifelong Learning, 1999. ED430577.

Available: <>.

This U. S. Department of Education publication discusses the importance of information literacy and its implications for education, libraries, the workplace, and society. Print version is a 6-panel, 2-fold brochure.

Iannuzzi, Patricia, Charles T. Mangrum, and Stephen S. Strichart. Teaching Information Literacy Skills. Boston: Allyn, 1999.

An extremely useful book for bibliographic instruction librarians. Includes a myriad of ideas, in-class exercises, reproducible activities for active learning in the classroom.

Kaufman, Paula T. "Information Incompetence: Are We Neglecting our Duty to American Education?" Library Journal 15 Nov. 1992: 37-39.

An excellent, short plea for the inclusion of information competency in the core curriculum at every level and the need to train future librarians in that area.

Kilcullen, Maureen. "Teaching Librarians to Teach: Recommendations on What We Need to Know." Reference Services Review 26.2 (1998): 7-18.

An excellent overview of what librarians new to instruction need to be familiar with. Accompanied by an annotated bibliography.

Kirk, Thomas G. "Information Literacy in a Nutshell: Basic Information for Academic Administrators and Faculty." Other Information Literacy Resources. 30 Mar. 2000. Inst. for Information Literacy. 5 Apr. 2000. 


This publication provides not only a working definition of information literacy but suggests program models, providing links to relevant Web sites.

Kuhlthau, Carol Collier. Teaching the Library Research Process. 2nd ed. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1994.

This book puts into practice Kuhlthau’s seven stages of research: initiating a research assignment, selecting a topic, exploring information, formulating a focus, collecting information, preparing to present, assessing the process. Especially suited to library media specialists and secondary school teachers. A very useful book for helping students break down the research process into manageable components.

LaGuardia, Cheryl, et al. Teaching the New Library: A How-To-Do-It Manual for Planning and Designing Instructional Programs. How-To-Do-It Manuals for Librarians. 70. New York: Neal-Schuman, 1996.

This book addresses the effects of technology on teaching. It addresses the Who, What, When, Where, How, and Why of teaching. Very practical publication.

Learning to Teach: Workshops on Instruction: A Project of the Learning to Teach Task Force. Chicago: Bibliographic Instruction Section, Assn. of Coll. and Res. Libraries, Amer. Lib. Assn., 1993.

A training manual on designing, implementing, and evaluating instruction. It includes "...modules that address issues critical to successful classroom instruction." (p. v.) Includes contributions by Esther Grassian, Trudi Jacobson, Joan Kaplowitz, and others. Useful bibliographies at the end of each chapter. A very practical handbook for any librarian who teaches.

Martin, Lynne M., ed. Library Instruction Revisited: Bibliographic Instruction Comes of Age. New York: Haworth, 1995. Also published as The Reference Librarian 51/52 (1995).

A compilation of articles on bibliographic instruction, with an introduction by the editor and Trudi E. Jacobson. The book builds on two other compilations previously published by Haworth in 1984 and 1989 and a lot of the material reflects upon the changes that the years have brought to BI. There are sections on learning theories, collaboration and cooperation, technology and instruction, diversity and multiculturalism, case studies, and image.

McCrank, Lawrence J. "Academic Programs for Information Literacy: Theory and Structure." RQ 31.4 (1992): 485-497.

This article analyzes the development of the concept behind the term, "information literacy." The author then examines the importance of information literacy outside of the confines of the library and the key philosophical and theoretical ingredients for a successful information literacy program. Not an easy article to read but thought-provoking.

Oberman, Cerise. "The Institute for Information Literacy: Formal Training Is a Critical Need." College & Research Libraries News 59.9 (1998): 703-705.

Available: <>.

A background article on the formation of the Institute for Information Literacy (IIL) and its first initiatives including its Immersion Program, Web site, and programs on developing institutional strategies and forging community partnerships.

---. "Library Instruction: Concepts & Pedagogy in the Electronic Environment." RQ 35.3 (1996): 315-323.

The focus of library instruction in the information society is "informed use and active and appropriate application of information." Oberman adeptly addresses the issues instruction librarians face in this electronic world where, for most students, the computer is the goddess and quantity takes precedence over quality. The overarching message is to teach "discrimination among information," another term for critical thinking skills. An excellent article on the future of library instruction.

Oberman, Cerise, Bonnie Gratch Lindauer, and Betsy Wilson. "Integrating Information Literacy into the Curriculum: How Is Your Library Measuring Up?" College & Research Libraries News 59.5 (1998): 347+.

Available: <>.

This summary of a panel presentation at the 1998 conference of the American Association of Higher Education (AAHE) introduces the information literacy IQ test developed by Cerise Oberman and Betsy Wilson to determine an institution’s information literacy readiness. The test is available on the Web at: <>.

Oker-Blom, Teodora. "Integration of Information Skills in Problem Based Curricula." 64th IFLA General Conference, August 16 - August 21, 1998, Amsterdam. IFLANET: Intl. Federation of Lib. Associations and Institutions. 5 Apr. 2000.


The presenter espouses incorporating a system of "problem based learning" into school curricula. She sees this as taking both teachers and librarians beyond teaching the mechanics of information retrieval, from how-to-use sessions on particular indexes and search engines to a real, critical understanding of research and evaluation of materials on the part of the students.

Plotnick, Eric. Information Literacy. ERIC Digest. Syracuse, NY: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information & Technology, Syracuse U, 1999.

Available: <>.

The Associate Director of the ERIC Clearinghouse on Information & Technology offers a review of the state of information literacy, including its evolution as a concept, a review of standards that have been developed, and the relationship of information literacy to needed workplace skills. He identifies three themes that predominate in information literacy literature: information literacy is a process, instruction must be integrated into and reinforced by school curricula, and information skills translate into workplace success. This Digest is based on Information Literacy: Essential Skills for the Information Age, by Kathleen L. Spitzer, Michael B. Eisenberg, and Carrie A. Lowe [cited below].

Rader, Hannelore B. "Information Literacy and the Undergraduate Curriculum." Library Trends 44.2 (1995): 270-278.

An excellent overview of the integration of library instruction and information literacy into the curriculum. Rader provides the conceptual framework for renewed efforts by librarians to initiate information literacy programs at the undergraduate level. She considers new technologies, the movement for improved educational outcomes and the pressure from outside accrediting agencies as encouraging developments enabling librarians to "assume their role in the teaching and learning process."

Rettig, James. "The Convergence of the Twain or Titanic Collision? BI and Reference in the 1990s’ Sea of Change." Reference Services Review 23.1 (1995): 7-20.

This article discusses the head-on clash between the concept of bibliographic instruction and reference in a very incisive manner: should librarians give information or instruction? Rettig shows that this dichotomy has existed since 1876 and has yet to be resolved. He suggests a list of shared values, a common goal for BI and reference, even a new name for a new form of library service which would no longer divide BI and reference. An excellent addition to the literature on BI.

Shapiro, Jeremy J., and Shelley K. Hughes. "Information Literacy as a Liberal Art: Enlightenment Proposals for a New Curriculum." Educom Review 31:2 Mar./Apr. 1996. 


The authors describe the benefits of information literacy as including the ability to think critically in an information society and to see information in its social, cultural and philosophical place in history. They suggest that it be considered a liberal art.

Shirato, Linda, ed. Programs that Work: Papers and Sessions Material Presented at the Twenty-Fourth National LOEX Library Instruction Conference Held in Denton, Texas, 16 to 18 May 1996. Library Orientation Ser. 28. Ann Arbor: Pierian, 1997.

The theme question for this LOEX conference was: "What kinds of programs really work?" The keynote address was given by Lizabeth A. Wilson. The conference included a talk by Debra Gilchrist, a panel presentation, and a series of instructive and poster sessions. A great addition to the literature on information literacy.

---. "Special Issue: A LOEX 25-year Retrospective." Reference Services Review 27.3 (1999): 210-290.

A great collection of papers celebrating 25 years of the Library Orientation and Exchange (LOEX), 1971-1996, and how it became a premier forum for sharing information about library instruction and information literacy. Articles by Linda Shirato, Hannelore B. Rader, Patricia Senn Breivik, Carol Tenopir, Marvin E. Wiggins, Evan Farber, Larry Hardesty, Marilyn Lutzker, and others.

Snavely, Loanne, and Natasha Cooper. "Competing Agendas in Higher Education: Finding a Place for Information Literacy." Reference & User Services Quarterly 37.1 (1997): 53-62.

This article offers "a course-integrated, across-the-curriculum model for information literacy." The obstacles faced in this endeavor are discussed, including collaboration with faculty, convincing the administration, and the need for substantive curricular change.

---. "The Information Literacy Debate." Journal of Academic Librarianship 23.1 (1997): 9-14.

An interesting debate on the phrase, "information literacy," and its relationships to older terms such as library skills, library use, or bibliographic instruction. The article ends with a discussion on whether to return to the old terms, select a new term, or retain "information literacy." The authors argue for retaining "information literacy" and using it "carefully and with clarity."

Spitzer, Kathleen L., Michael B. Eisenberg, and Carrie A. Lowe. Information Literacy: Essential Skills for the Information Age. Syracuse, NY: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information & Technology, Syracuse U, 1998.

Traces the history and development of the term "information literacy." Examines the economic perspective of information literacy and its impact on K-12 and higher education. Included in appendices are "The Information Literacy Standards for Student Learning," prepared by the American Association of School Librarians (AASL) and the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT); the report of the U.S. Department of Labor Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS, 1991); a chronology of the development of information literacy; a correlation of information literacy skills with selected national subject matter standards; Dalbotten’s correlation of inquiry skills to national content standards; an explanation of rubrics and their application in standards education; and an extensive bibliography. A well-rounded, easy-to-use, comprehensive treatment of information literacy.

Vojtek, Bob, and Rosie O’Brien Vojtek. "Flung Into Motion." Journal of Staff Development 20:1 (1999): 67-9.

The authors suggest that at present most teachers "develop project-based learning opportunities for students that are applied rather than incorporated into the curriculum." Educators first need to understand the difference between applied and integrated technology. Then they must learn when a given technology is the most appropriate tool to achieve a desired result. The authors suggest use of standards developed by the NETS Project, the National Education Technology Standards, and the nine information literacy standards adopted by the American Association of School Librarians (AASL) and the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT).

Wilson, Myoung Chung. "To Dissect a Frog or Design an Elephant: Teaching Digital Information Literacy Through the Library Gateway." INSPEL 32.3 (1998): 189-195.

How to teach information literacy in a digital age is the theme of this article. The author reviews the different literacies needed for print and electronic environments, accentuating the ever-increasing need for evaluative skills. Wilson proposes that the library gateway be used as the tool to impart digital literacy. A well-taken approach to information literacy in the Internet age.

Zeszotarski, Paula. Computer Literacy for Community College Students. ERIC Digest. Los Angeles: ERIC Clearinghouse for Community Colleges, 2000.

Available: <>.

The author insists that definitions of computer literacy include information literacy. The article discusses incorporating technology into courses and the roles of teaching and library faculty in this process.




Hardesty, Larry. "Faculty Culture and Bibliographic Instruction: An Exploratory Analysis." Library Trends 44.2 (1995): 339-367.

In a wide-ranging review of research in education, sociology, and librarianship, Hardesty analyzes the characteristics of modern faculty culture in the United States as explanations for faculty resistance to bibliographic instruction and negative attitudes toward librarians as teachers. He concludes that better understanding and sensitivity to academic culture will help librarians in their effort to make bibliographic instruction part of that culture.

Iannuzzi, Patricia. "Faculty Development and Information Literacy: Establishing Campus Partnerships." Reference Services Review 26.3-4 (1998): 97-102+.

Explores in depth the connections between faculty development and information literacy and addresses the following five topics: information literacy and campus culture, campus initiatives, strategies for partnerships, a faculty development model, and the Florida International University Model for Information Literacy.

Leckie, Gloria J. "Desperately Seeking Citations: Uncovering Faculty Assumptions About the Undergraduate Research Process." Journal of Academic Librarianship 22.3 (1996): 201-208.

This excellent article compares the faculty member as an expert in his own field with the novice student who confronts a research paper for the first time in his life. The author goes on to define the role of a research paper from the faculty’s point of view and offers suggestions on how problematic assignments could be remedied by offering the students in-class stratified approaches to research, using faculty-librarian partnerships to impart research skills. The author advocates a shift from simple BI to a more curriculum-integrated approach to information literacy.

Rader, Hannelore B. "Faculty-Librarian Collaboration in Building the Curriculum for the Millennium: The US Experience." 64th IFLA General Conference, August 16 - August 21, 1998, Amsterdam. IFLANET: Intl. Federation of Lib. Associations and Institutions. 22 Apr. 2000. 


The presenter discusses the need for librarians to become leaders in the cause of information literacy collaborations with faculty. She sees the teaching of information skills as the contribution that the librarians bring to any such partnership. She lists examples of faculty-librarian collaborations from around the country.

Shirato, Linda, ed. Working with Faculty in the New Electronic Library: Papers and Session Materials Presented at the Nineteenth National LOEX Library Instruction Conference held at Eastern Michigan University, 10 to 11 May 1991, and Related Resource Materials Gathered by the LOEX Clearinghouse. Library Orientation Ser. 22. Ann Arbor: Pierian, 1992.

This conference publication includes the keynote address, given by Evan Ira Farber of Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana, and entitled "Teachers as Learners: The Application of BI"; other articles dealing with forging partnerships with faculty and administration; nine instructive sessions; and three poster sessions. A good addition to the literature on bibliographic instruction.

Smith, Risa L. "Philosophical Shift: Teach the Faculty to Teach Information Literacy." [1997?] Assn. of Coll. and Res. Libraries. 5 Apr. 2000.


To facilitate the teaching of information literacy, which is beyond the resources of most academic libraries, librarians should be training faculty to teach information literacy in their courses. The author discusses what would be needed to make this possible.

Young, Rosemary M., and Stephena Harmony. Working with Faculty to Design Undergraduate Information Literacy Programs. How-To-Do-It Manuals for Librarians. 90. New York: Neal-Schuman, 1999.

This book is written for librarians who, with the help of committed faculty, will be planning, developing, creating, implementing, administering, and evaluating information literacy programs. An excellent introduction to the literature on course-integrated instruction in which librarians must partner with teaching faculty.




Pausch, Lois M., and Mary Pagliero Popp. "Assessment of Information Literacy: Lessons from the Higher Education Assessment Movement." 1997. Assn. of Coll. and Res. Libraries. 10 May 2000. 


The authors review the growing body of research into assessment techniques in other disciplines to learn what can be adapted to the assessment of librarian’s teaching efforts and information literacy programs.

Quiñones, Sherri, and Rita Kirshtein. An Educator’s Guide to Evaluating the Use of Technology in Schools and Classrooms. Prepared for U.S. Dept. of Educ., Office of Educational Res. and Improvement. Washington, DC: GPO, 1998.

Available: <>.

This government publication is designed to introduce an evaluation process. While its primary target is K-12, it can also assist higher education efforts.

Ragains, Patrick. "Evaluation of Academic Librarians’ Instructional Performance: Report of a National Survey." Research Strategies 15:3 (1997): 159-175.

The author discusses the effectiveness of various means of assessing library instruction classes. Included in response to a national survey are student evaluations, tests of students, faculty and peer observations, and other methods. Ragains concludes that little is gained from most of these forms of assessment. He advocates library credit-bearing courses, World Wide Web-based library guides, and other activities that move librarians away from the one-shot library instruction program, as more profitable ways of fostering information skills and allowing useful assessment of student learning.

Shonrock, Diana D., ed. Evaluating Library Instruction: Sample Questions, Forms, and Strategies for Practical Use. Chicago: Amer. Lib. Assn., 1996.

Compiled by the Research Committee of the American Library Association’s Library Instruction Round Table (LIRT), this very practical manual covers the evaluation of all elements of library instruction. It includes sample evaluation questions and forms, checklists, a glossary, and a bibliography.






An excellent moderated electronic discussion group about library instruction. Subscribe by contacting Post material at Archive available.

Directory of Online Resources for Information Literacy (DORIL). Ed. Drew Smith. 18 Dec. 1999. School of Lib. and Information Science, U of South Florida, Tampa. 9 Apr. 2000. 


Well-organized site offering links to information on assessment, conferences, organizations, projects, papers, programs and much more.

Grassian, Esther. "Information Literacy Competencies: Selected Items & Efforts." National Information Literacy Institute (NILI). 4 Jan. 1998. Inst. for Information Literacy. 10 Apr. 2000. 


Extensive annotated and linked list of information literacy programs, organizational efforts and related literature.

Grassian, Esther, and Susan E. Clark. "Information Literacy Sites: Background and Ideas for Program Planning and Development." College & Research Libraries News 60:2 (1999): 78-81+. 

Available: <>.

An excellent source of Web sites related to information literacy. Includes guidelines and reports, programs, tutorials, listservs, e-journals, articles, and organizations.

Institute for Information Literacy. "Recommended Readings for Librarians New to Instruction." 10 Jan. 2000. Inst. for Information Literacy. 9 Apr. 2000. 


An annotated list of readings on information literacy suggested by ILL Advisory Board members and Immersion ‘99 program faculty.

Johnston, Wanda K., et al. "The ‘Best’ in Bibliographic Instruction." Community & Junior College Libraries 8.1 (1995): 103-112.

Although somewhat dated, this concise bibliography can be very useful to instruction librarians, especially librarians in community colleges. The "Best" is the result of a survey of the Community & Junior College Libraries Section (CJCLS) and Bibliographic Instruction Section (BIS) of the Association of College and Research Libraries, and the Library Instruction Round Table of the American Library Association, during Spring 1993.

Jones, Phillip J. Evaluation of Library Instruction Bibliography. 28 Jan. 1997. Lib. Instruction Round Table. 10 May 2000. 


Bibliography compiled for the 1997 LIRT Conference program, "Focus on the Student: Emphasizing Learning Styles." Includes articles and books published 1993 to 1996.

Rader, Hannelore B. "Library Instruction and Information Literacy: 1998." Reference Services Review 27.4 (1999): 376-403.

This excellent yearly annotated bibliography on library instruction has been compiled since 1975 by Hannelore Rader, a well-known practitioner and theoretician of bibliographic instruction/information literacy. The materials are arranged by type of library and then alphabetically by author. An excellent tool for any instruction librarian.

Ragains, Patrick. Assessment in Library and Information Literacy Instruction. 28 Sept. 1999. U. of Nevada, Reno Libraries. 10 May 2000.


A collection of Web links on assessment and testing, including bibliographies, conference presentations, evaluation forms, research, and more.

Roccos, Linda. A Sampling of Web Tutorials Collected for the LACUNY Institute 2000, "Information Literacy: Laying the Foundations." [n.d.] Lib. Assn. of the City U of New York. 18 April 2000. <>.

Annotated listing of links to tutorials in information literacy in general, for freshman year programs, on specific databases and subjects, and on Internet research.





Institute for Information Literacy.

Home page: <>.

Sponsored by the Association of College and Research Libraries, the Institute has three goals: to foster librarians as effective information literacy teachers, to assist in the development and implementation of information literacy programs, and to work with the education community to forward curriculum development. The Institute’s Web site offers access to materials from its programs and links to related information including standards and competency definitions.

Library Instruction Round Table (LIRT).


LIRT is a round table of the American Library Association. Its Web site offers material on instruction as well as information skills, evaluation, and related links.

LOEX Clearinghouse for Library Instruction, Eastern Michigan University Library, Ypsilanti, IL. 

Home page: <>

LOEX was founded in 1971 by librarians at Eastern Michigan University who wanted a forum to share information about their work, then known as "library orientation" (hence Library Orientation and Exchange). In addition to operating as a clearinghouse of information and instructional materials, the organization sponsors an annual conference and publishes a quarterly newsletter. Its Web site offers numerous instructional links and full-text materials.

National Forum on Information Literacy.

Home page: <>.

This coalition of educational, business, and governmental organizations was formed in 1990, in response to the American Library Association Presidential Committee on Information Literacy report of 1989 [cited on p. 1 above under "Core Documents"]. Its Web site offers information and documentation about the organization’s activities, lesson plans, and related links.




California State University. "CSU Information Competence Project." 18 Mar. 1999. Kennedy Library, Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo. 16 Apr. 2000 


A presentation of the California State University system’s Information Competence initiative. Web site gives information about the project, begun in 1995, with access to materials that helped define it and document its progress as well as materials developed by the project such as competency statements, web tutorials, and links to related Web sites.

Evans, Beth, et al. "Recommendations from the CUNY Librarian Participants in the ACRL Institute for Information Literacy Immersion ‘99 for the City University of New York (CUNY) and the Office of Library Services." Information Literacy at CUNY. [n.d] Lib. Assn. of the City U of New York. 17 Apr. 2000. 


Florida International University Libraries. "Information Literacy at FIU." 6 Feb. 2000. 19 Apr. 2000.


This site provides information about FIU’s information literacy initiative, its mission statement, goals, objectives and more. Site also includes "Information Literacy Selective Bibliography," a good selection of related Web links.

State University of New York. SUNY Council of Library Directors. "SUNY Information Literacy Initiative." 2 Oct. 1997. SUNYConnect. 20 Apr. 2000. 


Documents the SUNY-wide initiative, reports, and progress.

University of Texas System. Digital Library. "TILT: Texas Information Literacy Tutorial." 14 Jan. 2000. UT System Digital Lib. 8 May 2000.


This interactive tutorial was designed to help students research more effectively.