Information Literacy: Reaching Diverse Populations

An Annotated Bibliography

LACUNY Institute 2001

Introduction

Last year’s LACUNY Institute, Information Literacy: Laying the Foundations, offered an excellent foundation on the topic of Information Literacy. The keynote speakers helped to further define information literacy and discussed ways for academic libraries to build partnerships and begin to assess and evaluate the information literacy skills we are offering students.

This year’s Institute, Information Literacy: Reaching Diverse Populations, takes these themes further and reflects on the need to explore not only what we are teaching, but whom are we teaching. As our classrooms become more culturally and linguistically diverse, our conceptions of diversity may foster information literacy or hinder it. There is a definite correlation between culture, education and learning, so our teaching strategies and methods may need to change.

This bibliography is divided into two parts. The first part, Information Literacy, includes the most recent articles on Core Documents, Assessment and Collaboration. The bibliography from last year’s conference, Information Literacy: Laying the Foundations is cited. The library, education and sociological literatures were searched for the years 2000-2001 to see what new research has emerged. We are happy to note that findings on implementation, collaboration, and evaluation programs are beginning to appear in the literature.

The second section of the bibliography begins with a section on Teaching and Learning. These articles provide practical teaching techniques and also present research on the relationship between culture and education. The last part includes material dealing with diverse populations: ESL students, graduate students, people with disabilities, adult learners, international students, first-year college students, and distance education students. These citations also compliment the Library Instruction for Diverse Populations: A Selective Annotated Bibliography by the 1998-2001 ALA/ACRL Instruction for Diverse Populations Committee cited on page 12.

We wish to thank the members of the LACUNY Institute Committee for the opportunity to undertake this project. We would also like to express appreciation to our colleagues in The William and Anita Newman Library of Baruch College and The Ursula C. Schwerin Library of New York City Technical College for their support and assistance during the compilation of this bibliography.

Rita Ormsby

Tess Tobin

May 2001

 


Devine, Jane and Francine Egger-Sider, compilers, Louise Fluk, ed. LACUNY Institute 2000: A Selective Information Literacy Bibliography. May 2000. 10 May 2001 <http://lacuny.cuny.edu/institute/links.html>.
This bibliography
, prepared for last year’s LACUNY Institute, is a selected list of materials, print and electronic, on the concept of information literacy and on the challenges of implementing an information literacy program. The items are chiefly conceptual, definitional, organizational, and truly about "laying the foundations."

The main body of the bibliography is preceded by a section of "Core Documents," listed in chronological order to trace the institutional history of the information literacy movement. The final sections list "Resources" for further discussion and reading; key "Organizations"; and important "Projects" implementing librarians' information literacy goals. In addition, there are materials on "Partnerships with Faculty/Collaborations" and "Assessment."

 

ADDITIONS TO CORE DOCUMENTS

"ACRL in Chicago: Highlights of ACRL programs at the ALA Annual Conference." College & Research Libraries News 61.8 (2000): 666-76.
A summary report of the ACRL committees’ presentations at ALA’s 119th Annual Conference held July 6-12, 2000 in Chicago. The Instruction Section presented "Instruction for First-Year Students." The Racial and Ethnic Diversity Committee sponsored a multicultural panel of five diversity experts who offered a lively discussion on incorporating strategies from different perspectives in the program "Sharing Strategies for Achieving Diversity." "New Trends in Accreditation and Distance Learning," a joint program from the Community and Junior College Libraries Section and the Distance Learning Section, provided an interesting look at shifts in accreditation and other distance learning issues.

Association of College and Research Libraries. Instruction Sect. Teaching Methods Committee. Tips for Developing Effective Web-Based Library Instruction. 17 July 2000. 4 May 2001 <http://www.lib.vt.edu/istm/WebTutorialsTips.html>.
Offers tips on the pedagogy of Web tutorials.

Bruce, Christine. "Information Literacy Programs and Research: An International Review." The Australian Library Journal 49.3 (2000): 209+. Infotrac Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale Group. Newman Lib. Baruch College. 30 April 2001 <http://infotrac.galegroup.com/itweb/cuny_baruch>.
Article explores ways of interpreting information literacy, synthesizes various efforts to seek new directions in classroom, community and workplace contexts, and introduces recent research, including that of the author.

Haycock, Ken. "What Librarians Can Learn from Librarian Educators: Information Literacy a Key Connector for Libraries." Adelaide 3 - 5 Dec. 1999. Fourth National Information Literacy Conference organized by the University of South Australia and ALIA Information Literacy Special Interest Group. National Forum on Information Literacy. 4 May 2001 <http://www.infolit.org/documents/librarians.html>.
Keynote conference address discusses research in K-12 information literacy, especially successful implementations of programs, and integrates this research with recent studies of information literacy in academic libraries.

National Forum on Information Literacy. A Comprehensive Assessment of Public Information Dissemination 26 Jan. 2001. 4 May 2001<http://www.nclis.gov/govt/assess/assess.html>.
Recent U.S. National Committee on Library and Information Science report to Congress recommends a formal recognition that public information is a strategic national resource.
Along with proactive dissemination and enhanced access, information literacy is considered crucial to transforming public information resources into a strategic national asset. First three volumes of this report may be accessed at this site; fourth volume is not yet available.

"Objectives for Information Literacy Instruction: ACRL Guidelines." College & Research Library News 62.4 ( 2001): 416-428.
In 1997 ACRL’S Instruction Section created a task force to review the 1987 "Model Statement of Objectives for Academic Bibliographic Instruction." This publication updates and replaces the 1987 document.

Rader, Hannelore B. "A Silver Anniversary: 25 Years of Reviewing the Literature Related to User Instruction." Reference Services Review 28.3 (2000): 290-297.
This article presents a summary review of 25 years on the literature on user instruction and information literacy. Author notes how developments in education and technology during the last ten years have affected user instruction and have led to the emergence of information literacy.

Rader, Hannelore B. "Library Instruction and Information Literacy – 1999." Reference Services Review 28.4 (2000): 378-99.
The University Librarian of the University of Louisville has produced an annotated list of materials dealing with information literacy, including instructions in the use of information resources, research and technology, and skills related to retrieving, using and evaluating information. Review, the 26th to be published in Reference Services Review, includes all items published in 1999.

Rochester Regional Library Council. Information Literacy. 6 April 2001. Rochester Regional Library Council. 8 May 2001<http://www.rrlc.org/infolit/infolit.html>.
The Regional Library Council of Rochester, New York received an LSTA grant to raise awareness of the importance of information literacy in the community. Project involves school, public, academic, and special libraries in the area collaborating and establishing partnerships to promote information literacy. Web site provides full project description and links to model programs and other resources.

Roth, Lorie. "Educating the Cut-and-Paste Generation." Library Journal 124.18 (1999): 42-44. ABI Inform Global. Newman Lib. Baruch College. 3 May 2001 <http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb> .
Author, a college administrator, discusses teaching information literacy in academic libraries
and describes programs developed at California State University that include faculty-librarian partnerships, assessing competency, information outreach, and developing critical thinking.

University Libraries @ Ohio University. Information Competency. 30 March 2000. Ohio State. 8 May 2001<http://www.library.ohiou.edu/libinfo/librarydocs/infocomp/infocomp.htm>.
Document outlines why information competency should be a
vital part of general education requirements and suggests how librarians can contribute to this effort. Includes reports of faculty focus group that complained of students’ inability to use the library’s information resources effectively. Appendices include comments by faculty focus group and representative information competency programs at other institutions.

 

IMPLEMENTATION, ASSESSMENT, AND COLLABORATION

Daragan, Patricia and Gwendolyn Stevens. "Developing Lifelong Learners: An Integrative and Developmental Approach to Information Literacy." Research Strategies 14 (1996): 68-81.
Article discusses first component of a four-year, course-integrated library instruction
program at the U.S. Coast Guard Academy. Assessment includes pre-and post-tests, results of which support conclusion that levels of information literacy among in-coming students vary widely, but variance decreases after a semester of integrated library instruction.

Eisenberg, Michael B. and Robert E. Berkowitz. The Big6 Collection. Worthington, OH: Linworth, 2000.
Offers the best from the Big6 Newsletter and provides educators with a variety of material to help them implement the model of information problem solving into their curriculum. A case study provides an example of how the model was implemented across the state of Utah.

Haycock, Ken. "Fostering Collaboration, Leadership and Information Literacy: Common Behaviors of Uncommon Principals and Faculties." NASSP Bulletin 83:605 (1999): 82-7. EJ585580.
Author believes principals are the key factor in developing an effective, integrated, collaborative school library program by integrating the library into instructional programs, encouraging student use, and establishing written-evaluation procedures.

Huerta, Deborah and Victoria E. McMillan. "Collaborative Instruction by Writing and Library Faculty: A Two-Tiered Approach to the Teaching of Scientific Writing." Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship 28 Fall (2000). 8 May 2001 <http://www.library.ucsb.edu/istl/00-fall/article1.html>.
Research associate in biology and Colgate science librarian describe results of six years of collaborative teaching of scientific writing to college undergraduates at both beginning and advances levels. Two-course sequence emphasizes information literacy and analysis, effective reading, drafting, and revising strategies. To model the interrelated nature of research and writing together they plan all aspects of both courses. Authors believe this
collaboration offers exciting prospects for the future.

Kutner, Laurie. "Library Instruction in an Interdisciplinary Environmental Studies Program: Challenges, Opportunities and Reflections." Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship 28 Fall (2000). 8 May 2001<http://www.library.ucsb.edu/istl/00-fall/article2.html>.
The Environmental Studies Program is the only undergraduate major requiring a thesis at
the University of Vermont. Students must design, conduct and complete a substantive piece of research. In support of the requirement, Environmental Studies majors receive sustained library instruction. Success of entire process, according to the author, is the understanding by the faculty of the importance and centrality of incorporating the teaching of critical thinking and information skills into their required courses and the close working relationship between the program and the library. Article discusses the challenges and opportunities in teaching interdisciplinary students library and information skills.

Laherty, Jennifer. "Promoting Information Literacy for Science Education Programs: Correlating the National Science Education Content Standards with the Association of College and Research Libraries Information Competency Standards for Higher Education." Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship 28 Fall (2000). 13 May 2001 <http://www.library.ucsb.edu/istl/00-fall/article3.html>.
Author maps the commonalities between the National Science Education Standards and the ACRL Information Competency Standards for Higher Education and discusses promoting information literacy in science education programs.

MacDonald, Mary C., Andree F. Rathemacher and Joanna M. Burkhardt. "Challenges in Building an Incremental, Multi-year Information Literacy Plan." Reference Services Review 28.3 (2000): 240-7. Emerald, Electronic Management Research Library Database, MCB Univ. Press. Newman Lib. Baruch College. 30 April 2001 <http://www.emerald-library.com>.
Authors discuss the plan for building an incremental, multi-year information literacy program at the University of Rhode Island to address the information and research needs of undergraduates, graduate students, and faculty. Authors conclude that they should approach information literacy as a new liberal art that should be infused across the campus. Article reviews the current library instruction program and presents The Draft Plan for Information Literacy.

Maughan, Patricia Davitt. "Assessing Information Literacy Among Undergraduates: A Discussion of the Literature and the University of California-Berkeley Assessment Experience." College & Research Libraries 62.1 (2001): 71-85.
Article discusses results of surveys undertaken since 1994 by the Teaching Library at the University of California-Berkeley to measure information literacy skills of graduating seniors in selected academic departments. Author concludes this study and others confirm that students continue to be confused by elementary conventions for organizing and accessing information.

Nichols, Janet. "Building Bridges: High School and University Partnerships for Information Literacy." NASSP Bulletin 83:605 (1999): 75-81 EJ585579.
As part of a special issue on information literacy, details a successful pilot project with Wayne State University librarians and staff discussing expectations for incoming freshmen, mainly from Detroit-area high schools, and providing high school/university curriculum articulation.

Pollot, Nan, revisor. Annotated Selected Bibliography on the Effectiveness of Library Instruction. Spring 1999. SUNY Librarians Association. Library Instruction Committee. Binghamton University Libraries. 5 May 2001 <http://library.lib.binghamton.edu/sunyla/sunylabid.html>.
First compiled and annotated in 1995-1996 and twice updated, the annotations to journal articles, books, and ERIC documents provide a wide-ranging review of the literature on assessment of library instruction and good teaching.

Raspa, Dick and Dane Ward, eds. The Collaborative Imperative: Librarians and Faculty Working Together in the Information Universe. Chicago: Association of College and Research Libraries, 2000.
Series of essays explores the possibilities of librarians working across disciplines and
traditional university boundaries. Key idea is that collaboration depends on relationship building. A directory of resources, reviews of the literature, case studies, and reports of informal collaboration are included.

Ricker, Alison Scott and Robert Q. Thompson. "Teaching Chemical Information in a Liberal Arts Curriculum." Journal of Chemical Education 76.11 (1999): 1590-3.
Authors describe the strategy used to teach a course on chemical information at Ohio's
Oberlin College, a 4-year liberal arts college. Authors acknowledge that many institutional constraints may impact incorporating information literacy into the chemistry curriculum. Discusses objectives and expectations of the chemical information course, assignments, oral presentations, the distribution of course responsibilities, teaching resources, and student responses.

Smith, Kenneth R. "New Roles and Responsibilities for the University Library: Advancing Student Learning Through Outcomes Assessment." ARL 213 (2000): 2-5.
Smith proposes that we rethink the curriculum, moving from a model I, which we package knowledge around the experience of the faculty, to a model based on the learning outcomes realized by students. These outcomes include not only what students know, but also the skills they develop, what they are able to do, and the attitudes of mind that characterize the way they will approach their work over a lifetime of change.

University Planning & Analysis North Carolina State University. Internet Resources for Higher Education Outcomes Assessment 9 April 2001. North Carolina State University. 5 May 2001 <http://www2.acs.ncsu.edu/UPA/assmt/resource.htm>.
Offers extensive list with links to other resources on assessment. Includes general resources, handbooks, assessment of specific skills or content, individual institutions’ assessment-related pages, accrediting bodies
, and student assessment of courses and faculty.

Verhey, Marilyn P. "Information Literacy in an Undergraduate Nursing Curriculum: Development, Implementation, and Evaluation." Journal of Nursing Education 38.6 (1999): 252-9.
Discusses the integrated information literacy program of the San Francisco State University School of Nursing
. The curriculum is a variety of instructional strategies woven through all semesters of the nursing program. To evaluate the information literacy program, an exploratory descriptive approach was taken using two different cohorts of students. Baseline testing before implementation of the information literacy program and posttesting after implementation of the program revealed selected positive occurrences in students' use of bibliographic databases and journal literature. However, students did not perceive they were more successful in accessing information. Faculty assessment of students’ ability to evaluate information did not change from 1992 to 1996. These and other evaluation findings are discussed, along with the information and technology "explosion" of recent decades that requires the need for nurses to engage in lifelong learning to maintain competencies.

Young, Rosemary M. and Stephena Harmony. Working with Faculty to Design Undergraduate Information Literacy Programs. How-to-do-it Manuals for Librarians Ser. 90. New York: Neal Schuman, 1999.
Work is aimed at undergraduate academic librarians and faculty members who are committed to helping students develop information-seeking skills. Provides practical guidance in creating an information literacy program. Separate chapters are devoted to integrated, nonintegrated, and full credit information literacy courses, the creation of an evaluation process, the use of instruction technologies, and handling the daily operation of an information literacy program, from scheduling sessions to creating annual reports.

 

TEACHING AND LEARNING THEORY

Bonwell, Charles C. The Active Learning Site-Bibliographies: Recent Active Learning Articles (1995 to 1998) and Large Class Bibliography. Active Learning Workshops. 5 May 2001 <http://www.active-learning-site.com/bib1.htm>.
Site supports the scholarship of teaching by providing journal articles and other references to help faculty use active learning successfully in college and university classes.

"Bringing Web Literacy to Faculty." THE Journal 27.10 (2000): 90-1.
In response to a faculty development requirement to be met by widely dispersed adjunct faculty and emerging training needs, Austin Community College in Texas has created an Electronic Information Literacy (EIL) program for faculty. Part I (one-hour) covers basic electronic information skills. Multiple face-to-face workshops introduce adjunct faculty to the Internet and Web browsers. Part II (three hours) focuses on accessing electronic resources. Expanded program includes film discussion series including Making Underserved Students Successful (Stand and Deliver), Student-Centered Instruction (Good Will Hunting) and Technology, Instruction and Freedom (The Matrix), and workshops that include the pedagogy of teaching online, student retention strategies, and learning styles and multiple intelligences. Details are available at <
http://irt.austin.cc.tx.us/fd>.

Brisk, Maria Estela and Margaret M. Harrington. Literacy and Bilingualism: A Handbook for All Teachers. Mahwah, N.J.: L. Erlbaum Associates, 2000.
This text enables teachers to understand the cultural, linguistic, and social issues facing language minority  students and to help build upon the skills that students bring with them to the learning environment.

The Center for Critical Thinking. Foundation for Critical Thinking. 5 May 2001 <http://www.criticalthinking.org>.
Offers instructional guides and lesson plans to help college, university, primary and secondary school educators implement critical thinking into all aspects of their teaching. Center is sponsored by the National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking, Foundation for Critical Thinking, International Center for the Assessment of Higher Order Thinking and Sonoma State University.

Cohen, Laura, and Tara Hoag and Kimberly S. Davies, revisors. Annotated Selected Bibliography of Full-Text Web-Based Articles Relating to Library Instruction. June 2000. SUNY Librarians  Association. Library Instruction Committee. 8 May 2001 <http://library.lib.binghamton.edu/sunyla/fulltext.html>.
Provides annotations and links to recent theme issues and individual articles on distance education, evaluation and assessment, recommended sources, teaching methodology, technology in the classroom, and evaluating Internet resources.

Curzon, Susan Carol. "Developing a Program of Information Literacy." College & Research Libraries News 61.6 (2000): 483-86, 491.
The Information Competency Work Group, comprised of university and library
administrators and faculty at California State University, began work in 1995 on developing a program of information literacy, or as they call it, information competency. Curzon discusses the progress of the collaborative effort.

Eckerman, Anne-Katrin. One Classroom, Many Cultures: Teaching Strategies for Culturally Different Children. St. Leonards, Australia: Allen & Unwin Australia Pty Ltd., 1994.
Although the group studied for this research consisted of children, this book provides an interesting look at culture and education. Eckerman examines a variety of teaching strategies, curriculum developments and organizational innovations, with particular emphasis on language, mathematics and science programs, and school—community relations.

Fowler, Clara S. and Elizabeth A. Dupuis. "What Have We Done? TILT’s Impact on Our Instruction Program." Reference Services Review 28. 4 (2000): 343-348.
In response to the large number of students needing library instruction, The Digital Information Literacy Office at the University of Texas at Austin created TILT (Texas Information Literacy Tutorial). This article discusses the drawbacks of implementing the tutorial, and also the positive impact the tutorial has had on student learning.

Gay, Geneva. Culturally Responsive Teaching: Theory, Research and Practice. Multicultural Education Ser. New York: Teachers College Press, 2000.
Discusses key components of culturally responsive teaching, including teacher caring, teacher attitudes and expectations, formal and informal multicultural curriculum, culturally informed classroom discussion, and cultural congruity in teaching and learning strategies. Author explains how the academic achievements of students of color and other marginalized students may be improved by culturally responsive teaching.

Hollins, Etta R., Joyce E. King, and Warren C. Hayman, eds. Teaching Diverse Populations: Formulating a Knowledge Base. SUNY Series, the Social Context of Education. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994.
Volume presents a review of the literature on schooling for culturally diverse populations. This publication addresses the importance of including a knowledge base for teacher preparation solidly founded on what is known about teaching diverse populations. Formulating such a knowledge base for teacher preparation requires a synthesis of existing knowledge about teaching culturally diverse populations and a determination of what more needs to be known. Focus of this monograph is on indigenous populations who have been traditionally undeserved in schools. The ethnic minority populations include African-Americans, Appalachians, Native Alaskan, Native American, and Latino-American.

Hones, Donald F. and Cher Shou Cha. Educating New Americans: Immigrant Lives and Learning. Mahwah, NJ : L. Erlbaum Associates, 1999.
This book examines what it means to be an American through the life history of Shou Cha, a refugee from Laos. Cha speaks about his experiences as an immigrant and the immigrant identity in school and society.

Landsberger, Joe. Critical Thinking. 5 March 2001. University of St. Thomas, St. Paul, MN. 8 May 2001 <http://www.iss.stthomas.edu/studyguides/crtthn.htm>.
Provides a study guide for strategies for critical thinking.

McAndrew, Rosemary. "Immersion 2000: Making Learning Happen." College & Research Libraries News 61.10 ( 2000): 909-911.
This article discusses the activities of the ACRL Institute for Information Literacy Immersion 2000 program held at the University of Washington, Seattle in July 2000.

Meskill, Carla and Jonathan Mossop and Richard Bates. "Bilingualism, Cognitive Flexibility, and Electronic Literacy." Bilingual Research Journal 23.2-3 (1999): 235- 247.
The unique features of electronic text can help researchers better understand the processes, goals, and special characteristics of the bilingual experience as well as how electronic literacy skills are acquired. Transmitting information through a computer to a bilingual student provides a new perspective to examine evolving definitions of second language instruction.

Murray, Janet. "Applying Big6 Skills and Information Literacy Standards to Internet Research." Book Report 19.3 (2000): 33-5.
Janet Murray has created a matrix of hands-on activities related to research on the Internet using Mike Eisenberg's and Bob Berkowitz' Big6 Skills™ and the National Information Literacy Standards developed by the American Association of School Librarians (AASL) and Association for Educational and Communications Technology (AECT).

Nieuwenhuysen, Paul. "Information Literacy Courses for University Students: Some Experiments and Some Experience." Campus-Wide Information Systems 17.5 (2000). Brussels: Vrije Universiteit.
A case study of courses organized at Vrije Universiteit Brussels and at the University of Antwerp in Belgium that are all related to information literacy. There is a document for each course, with an overview of the contents, the aims, and the evaluation procedure.

Patrick, Diane and Judy Reinhartz. "The Role of Collaboration in Teacher Preparation to Meet the Needs of Diversity." Education 119 (1999): 388- 95.
A collaborative professional development school (PDS) model of teacher preparation can provide the process through which diversity issues area addressed in field-based classrooms. This paper discusses the social context of teacher preparation at national and state levels, as well as the merits of the PDS.

Pernat, Marie. "Widening the Net: Monash University Library’s Flexible, Student-Centered Information Services." Australian Library and Information Association 30.3 (1999): 200+. Infotrac Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale Group. Newman Lib. Baruch College. 5 May 2001 <http://web5.infotrac.galegroup.com/itw/session>.
Article reviews library services available to students of Monash University, a large, diverse institution with numerous campuses, that is strong in external study. Emphasis in many student assignments is placed on learning by discovery and on analyzing the information found. Library’s goal is to deliver relevant scholarly information in digital, print, and other forms, to the library’s clients wherever they are located. Details new projects undertaken with fewer staff due to decline in direct government funding to the university.

Smith, Dorothy Louise White. Teacher Characteristics for Culturally Diverse Schools: Implications for Teacher Training. Diss. University of Southern California, 1992. DAI-A 53/04 (Oct 1992): 1083.
The study describes 42 teacher characteristics for effectiveness with the culturally diverse students that populate American schools. The importance of teacher behaviors to improving the achievement of students of various cultures and the training level(s) for acquiring characteristics were verified by surveying 174 administrators in San Diego city schools who select, hire, induct, supervise, and evaluate teachers.

Starr, Glenn Ellen and Paul Gaskill. "The Community Study Assignment for Leisure Studies: Integrating Information Literacy, Leisure Theory, and Critical Thinking." Research Strategies 15.3 (1997): 205-16.
The Appalachian State University Leisure Studies Program’s Community Study Assignment, a major writing assignment, involves close collaboration between teaching faculty and reference librarians. Authors discuss library instruction for the assignment and provide examples of critical thinking from recommendations and conclusions of students’ papers.

Teaching in the Diverse Classroom. Produced by The Center for Instructional Development and Research and Instructional Media Services, University of Washington. Seattle, WA : University of Washington, 1993. Videocassette.
Video presents an overview of instructional techniques suitable for college instructors when teaching an ethnically diverse student body.

Tomlinson, Carol Ann. The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners. Alexandria, VA : Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1999.
Author concludes foreword stating the book is about writing one’s history as a teacher—one day at a time, one increment of growth at a time, and one collegial partnership at a time. Discusses how to reach out effectively to students to be a catalyst for maximizing talents in all students.

"What Were They Thinking? Aligning Perceptions With Faculty Expectations." The Professor’s Craft. Feb. 2001. The Center for Effective Teaching and Learning. University of Texas at El Paso. 8 May 2001 <http://www.utep.edu/cetal/PC_feb_2001.htm>.
Column provides suggestions for helping students apply concepts they learn in class to other situations and to gather, to organize, to analyze and to critique information.

DIVERSE POPULATIONS – ASIAN-AMERICAN, AFRICAN-AMERICAN, HISPANIC-AMERICAN AND NATIVE-AMERICAN

The four major minority groupings in the United States include Asian-Americans, African-Americans, Hispanic-Americans and Native Americans. Few articles in the recent literature deal with information competency in library instruction in academic libraries specific to these communities. The information available has mostly focused on serving the needs of these communities at the public library level. More research on teaching strategies and information literacy instruction methodology for culturally and linguistically diverse students is needed. The following selective annotated bibliography by the 1998-2001 ALA-ACRL Instruction for Diverse Population Committee provides references to works published since 1987.

Library Instruction for Diverse Populations: A Selective Annotated Bibliography. 1998-2001 ALA-ACRL Instruction for Diverse Population Committee. 6 Aug. 2000. Marywood University, Scranton, PA. 30 April 2001 <http://www.marywood.edu/www2/libweb/diversebib.htm>.
The bibliography is an extensive compilation of books, articles and websites that provide helpful information and ideas for teaching students with handicaps/disabilities, non-traditional students, transfer students, gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender students, international students, Asian American students, Hispanic/Latino American students, African-American students, first-generation college students, and diverse populations in general.

Harris Taylor, Rhonda and Lotsee Patterson. "Getting the ‘Indian’ Out of the Cupboard: Using Information Literacy to Promote Critical Thinking." Teacher Librarian Dec. 2000. 22 April 2001 <http://www.teacherlibrarian.com/taylor-patterson.html>.
University of Oklahoma Library and Information Studies professors describe how use of the critical thinking skills model of instruction, along with resources presenting the authentic voices of Native Americans, can help prevent students from becoming victimized by rhetoric, assumptions, or visual images of Native Americans.

La Guardia, Cheryl and Christine Oka. "Accessing America’s Minorities." Library Journal 121.1 (2001): S40- 46.
Highlights the products available online that offer a new range of information on the historical and cultural lives and contributions of minorities in the United Stares. The products reviewed are "General Interest Files Discovering Collection" (
www.galegroup.com). "Diversity your World" and "Ethnic NewsWatch" (www.slinfo.com). "Facts on File Online (www.facts.com) has three files which address the minority experience. African-American Experience, The Asian-American Experience and the Hispanic-American Experience.

Pewewardy, Cornel. Culturally Responsive Teaching For American Indian Students. 21 Dec. 1998. 4Directions Organization. 5 May 2001 <http://www.4directions.org/legacy/Culture>.
Pewewardy, an enrolled member of the Comanche Tribe of Oklahoma, and assistant professor in the School of Education, University of Kansas, presents aspects of American Indian students’ cultural and experiential backgrounds to help teachers identify pathways to successful teaching and learning for these students.

 

DIVERSE POPULATIONS--ESL Students

Bosher, Susan and Jenise Rowekamp. "The Refugee/Immigrant in Higher Education: The Role of Educational Background." College ESL 8.1 (1998): 23- 42. New York: The City University of New York.
This study investigates in the refugee/immigrant population in the open-admissions college at the University of Minnesota, the relationship between educational background in native and second language, English language proficiency as measured by a standardized language proficiency test length of residency in the U.S., and academic success as measured by GPA.

Chandler, Jean, Richard Lissome, and Marianne Rowe. "Adapting Teaching Methods to Learners’ Preferences, Strategies and Needs." College ESL 8.1 (1998): 48-9. New York: The City University of New York.
This article describes research into students’ language learning preferences and strategies, conducted by three ESL teachers at three different postsecondary institutions. It looks at how students’ preferences and strategies vary by student ethnicity, language background, goals of study, proficiency, level, and gender.

 

DIVERSE POPULATIONS—GENERAL

Association of College and Research Libraries. Women’s Studies Section Collection Development Committee. Women's Studies Collection Development Resources. 27 June 2000. University of Tennessee at Knoxville. 5 May 2001 <http://aztec.lib.utk.edu/~shrode/wss98.htm>.
ACRL Women’s Studies Section Collection Development Committee designed site to provide guidance and links to helpful resources for new or interested women’s and gender studies librarians. Also provides guidance on Women’s Studies instruction and offers links to other resources.

Broidy, Ellen. "Celebrating Diversity, Ten Years Later." Reference Services Review. 27.3 (1999): 266-70.
Broidy looks at the political/social changes that have impacted library instruction, particularly in academic libraries in California, over the years since her keynote address at the 1988 LOEX Conference.

Bull, K. S., D. Montgomery and S. L. Kimball. Identifying & Retaining At-Risk Students. 19 June 2000. Oklahoma State University. 8 May 2001 <http://home.okstate.edu/homepages.nsf/toc/EDUC5110iep6>.
Module was designed to replace a formal presentation in Instructional Effective Program at Oklahoma State University. General objectives include identifying problems that make a course an "at-risk" course for students; identifying processes, techniques and strategies for teaching these students, and describing processes and procedures to help such students.

Calderhead, Veronica. "Reflections on Information Confusion in Chemistry Information Learning: The Meaning of the Shift from Library Instruction to Information Literacy." Research Strategies 16.4 (1998): 285-99. Science Direct. Newman Lib. Baruch College. 22 April 2001 <http://www.sciencedirect.com>.
The mainstay of information literacy in chemistry instruction has been the teaching of Chemical Abstracts and its on-line version, CAS Online. Article presents a case study of the "re-tooling" of basic bibliographic instruction for chemistry at the John Cotton Dana Library at Rutgers University to ensure that students would develop concrete critical thinking strategies that would serve them in their future studies or in the workplace. Appendices provide topics discussed at the workshops and a questionnaire given students.

Downing, K.E., MacAdam, B. and D.P. Nichols. Reaching a Multicultural Student Community: A Handbook for Academic Librarians. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999.
Handbook, based on the Peer Information Counseling program at the University of Michigan, is intended for academic librarians who are interested in establishing peer outreach programs for minority students on their campuses. Chapters include an overview of the unique challenges facing academic institutions and libraries today in serving minority populations, suggestions for working effectively and practical guidelines for specific program design, implementation, and evaluation.

Jacobson, Trudi E. and Helene C. Williams, eds. Teaching the New Library to Today’s Users: Reaching International, Minority, Senior Citizens, Gay/Lesbian, First-Generation, At-Risk, Graduate and Returning Students and Distance Learners. The New Library Ser. 4. New York: Neal-Schuman, 2000.
Contributors to this book show how linguistic, cultural, age, and gender differences among
students can result in stronger library instruction development and more inventive services while librarians attempt to reach all students, develop 24-hour access to information, incorporate critical thinking components, and initiate information literacy into instructional programs. Each of four parts on international students; multi-cultural and gender issues; re-entry, graduate and seasoned students, and the needs of distance learners, offer extensive references and suggestions for further reading.

Leckie, Gloria and Anne Fullerton. "Information Literacy in Science and Engineering Undergraduate Education: Faculty Attitudes and Pedagogical Practices." College and Research Libraries 60.1 (1999): 9-29. EJ582317.
Leckie and Fullerton surveyed and interviewed science and engineering faculty at two Ontario universities, the University of Waterloo and the University of Western Ontario, regarding their perceptions of students' information-literacy skills and their own pedagogical practices. Faculty awareness of, and support for, bibliographic instruction methods, and the perceived role of science and engineering librarians were also investigated.

Lehman, Jeffrey, ed. Gale Encyclopedia for Multicultural America: Primary Documents. Detroit: Gale Research Inc, 1999.
Reference book offers personal perspectives into the key events and every day lives of different ethnic groups and individuals. This is a rich source of historical and cultural information on the United States immigration experience.

Maple, Amanda, Beth Christensen and Kathleen A. Abromeit. "Information Literacy for Undergraduate Music Students: A Conceptual Framework." Notes 52.3 (1996): 744-53. Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale Group. Newman Lib. Baruch College. 22 April 2001 <http://web5.infotrac.galegroup.com/itw/session>.
Authors believe in the midst of constant change, a basic assumption underlies the entire discussion of undergraduate music education: college graduates must be information literate as a foundation for all other educational endeavors. Article discusses existing standards for information literacy for music students, and how music collections are structured, physically organized, and accessed.

Menshing, Teresa B., ed. Reaching and Teaching Diverse Library User Groups: Papers Presented at the Sixteenth National LOEX Library Instruction Conference. Ann Arbor, MI: Pierian Press, 1989.
Volume is a compilation of the papers presented at the Sixteenth National LOEX Library Instruction Conference held at Bowling Green State University in May 1988. The theme of the conference was "Reaching and Teaching Diverse Library User Groups."

NCLE (National Center for ESL Literacy Education). 4 April 2001. Center for Applied Linguistics. 8 May 2001 <http://www.cal.org/ncle>.
Offers links to bibliography, links to ERIC Digests, other resources, and listserv information for language and literacy instruction for adults learning English in the United States.

Rod Library. Diversity and Multiculturalism. 7 March 2000. University of Northern Iowa. 8 May 2001 <http://www.library.uni.edu/subject/interdis.html>.
Provides links to information on diverse populations in general; African-Americans and Africans; Asian-Americans and Asians; gay, lesbian and bisexual studies; Hispanic/ Latinos; individuals with disabilities; men’s studies, Native Americans and women’s studies.

 Winston, Mark D. "Diversity: More Than Just a Blip." College & Research Libraries 62.1 (2001): 6-8.
Cutting edge research in the study of diversity has highlighted the documented connection between investment in diversity and organizational success and performance. Winston notes that academic libraries have made some strides in fostering diversity; however, they still need to keep diversity as an articulated priority, especially in recruitment efforts.

 

DIVERSE POPULATIONS--FIRST-YEAR STUDENTS

Bender, Laura J. Bender and Jeffrey M. Rosen. "Working Toward Scalable Instruction: Creating the RIO tutorial at the University of Arizona Library. Research Strategies 16.4 (1998): 315-25. 22 April 2001.
How do 7,000 entering university freshmen become information literate? Article describes the process used to design and create RIO (Research Instruction Online),
http://www.library.arizona.edu/rio/, a Web-based tutorial at the University of Arizona, Tucson, that is designed to address identified competencies that comprise required information skills.

Branch, Katherine and Debra Gilchrist. "Library Instruction and Information Literacy in Community and Technical Colleges." RQ (1996): 476-83. 
Column provides information on strong tradition of library instruction and information literacy in community and technical colleges. Discusses the challenges of meeting the needs of a varied and diverse student body where the institutional focus is on teaching and learning. Innovative programs and collaboration and partnerships are detailed.

Emons, Mark. "First Impressions, Lasting Impact: Introducing the First-Year Student to the Academic Library." Against the Grain 12.5 (2000): 74-76.
A paper delivered at the 28th National LOEX Conference on working with first-year undergraduate students.

Jacobson, Trudi E. and Beth L. Mark. "Separating Wheat from Chaff: Helping First-Year Students Become Information Savvy: Programs at the University of Albany and Messiah College." The Journal of General Education 49.4 (2000):256-78.
The University at Albany, State University of New York, and Messiah College, Grantham, PA, have programs that integrate first-year library instruction for information literacy into general education courses. The University at Albany has a first-year living/learning experience program known as Project Renaissance that focuses on inquiry, community service work, and the development of writing and online searching and other technological
skills. Details of the program are found at http://www.albany.edu/projren/info/info.htm. Messiah College’s first-year course is designed around a single topic of interest and emphasizes critical reading, writing, critical thinking, and effective communication. These programs have encouraged classroom faculty and librarians to form closer partnerships in committee work and on research projects.

 

DIVERSE POPULATIONS--GRADUATE STUDENTS

Brown, Cecelia M. "Information Literacy of Physical Science Graduate Students in the Information Age." College & Research Libraries 60.5 (1999): 426-38.
Brown, an Assistant Professor and the Chemistry-Mathematics Librarian at the University of Oklahoma, reports on survey findings exploring the information literacy of physical science graduate students. Brown found that physical science graduate students form an information-literate microcosm despite a lack of formal library instruction. Report also describes the graduate students' perceptions of the physical and psychological components that enhance or detract from their ability to find, appraise, and use information and how they feel during the various stages of an information search. Includes recommendations for outreach to graduate students who are not native speakers of English and makes suggestions for library instruction that is specifically designed for, and attracts a greater number of, physical science graduate students.

Fitzgerald, Mary Ann. "The Cognitive Process of Information Evaluation in Doctoral Students: A Collective Case Study." Journal of Education for Library and Information Science 41.3 (2000): 170-86.
Study reveals that the participants, two women and three men, ages 30 to 40, who were followed through an information search process involving a topic of personal relevance, used evaluation as part of a complex cognitive process, using varied and numerous evaluative strategies. Evaluation began with a discrete initial event, progressed through three distinct deliberative phases, and ended with a decision in the form of a judgment.

Giannini, Grace. "'Drop-in' Sessions: Information Literacy Responding to Student Needs." Australian Academic and Research Libraries 30.3 (1999): 212-18. Infotrac Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale Group. Newman Lib. Baruch College. 30 April 2001 <http://web5.infotrac.galegroup.com/itw/session>
Article describes how Humanities and Social Sciences librarians at Monash University, Australia’s largest university, developed ‘drop-in’ sessions to offer graduate students, and later, undergraduate students, professional expertise in the basics of searching the Internet and CD-ROMs without running formal classes. Sessions are tailored to students’ immediate specific needs. Students’ feedback has driven the development and changes in the program. Informal sessions have alleviated preparation time for librarians.

 

DIVERSE POPULATIONS--INTERNATIONAL AND MULTICULTURAL STUDENTS

Petro, Allison. "International Teaching Assistants: Bridging the Cultural Gap." Feb./March 2000 TESOL Matters 5 May 2001 <http://www.tesol.org/isaffil/intsec/columns/200002-ita.html>.
Instructor of English Language Studies at University of Rhode Island suggests that international teaching assistants need both language skills and also cultural skills to compete successfully in the classroom during their graduate studies in the United States.

Sarkodie-Mensah, Kwasi. "International Students in the U.S.: Trends, Cultural Adjustments, and Solutions for a Better Experience." Journal of Education for Library and Information Science 39.2 (1998): 214-22.
Author believes libraries and information science institutions need to work closer with various campus units to assist international students in adjusting to life in the United States. Believes all departments should encourage their students to attend orientations, and international graduate students should attend workshops, seminars
, and training sessions on effective teaching.

 

DIVERSE POPULATIONS--NON-TRADITIONAL ADULT STUDENTS

Baron, Sarah and Alexia Strout-Dapaz. "A Close Encounter Model for Reference Services to Adult Learners: The Value of Flexibility and Variance." The Reference Librarian 69/70 (2000): 95-102.
Article discusses the need for using a variety of instructional methods to assess the learning styles of adult students before instruction starts, emphasizing the importance in the initial instruction encounter to appropriately match the three dimensions of the students' technological savvy, learning styles, and instructional method of the librarian. It also addresses the marketing and public relations aspect of bibliographic instruction programs for the adult learner.

Caravello, Patti Schifter. "Library Instruction and Information Literacy for the Adult Learner: A Course and Its Lessons for Reference Work." The Reference Librarian 69/70 (2000): 259-269. Caravello describes a librarian-taught course at UCLA that incorporates the teaching of electronic resources with active learning methods to instruct the adult learner on how to use the library. The course includes lectures and online demonstrations with active learning exercises.

Currie, C. Lyn. "Facilitating Adult Learning: The Role of the Academic Librarian." The Reference Librarian 69/70 (2000): 219-231.
Examines adult learning theory and suggests librarians emphasize the development of the skills of the learner rather than solely transmit content of the discipline. It also examines the practice of facilitating adult learning. Author sees the role of the academic librarian as one of facilitating the development of critical thinking, creative problem-solving, and informed decision-making. Author encourages self-directing and empowering adult learners in order to provide them with lifelong learning skills.

Duff, Viola M. "Returning to School to a Baccalaureate Program: Is There an Easy Way to Learn?" Journal of Nursing Education 36 (Oct. 1997): 390-392.
Discusses the need for planned skill-building sessions for returning adult students, specifically skills which enable them to better use the library, do better research, think critically, and write succinctly. Describes how, working with a librarian, such sessions were planned, and students a semester later were testifying to the usefulness of the sessions.

Fidishun, Dolores. "Teaching Adult Students to Use Computerized Resources: Utilizing Lawler's Keys to Adult Learning to Make Instruction More Effective." Information Technology and Libraries 19 (Sept. 2000): 157-158.
Article promotes the need for librarians to learn how to make their instruction effective by recognizing that adults learn differently from other college students. Fidishun uses Lawler's "six keys" to demonstrate how librarians can learn to understand the needs of adult students and instruct them effectively. These six keys include understanding and reducing anxiety, eliciting and incorporating student expectations, acknowledging and utilizing student experience, providing and encouraging student participation, identifying and incorporating relevant content, and facilitating change and growth.

Hammond, Carol Burroughs. "Nontraditional Students and the Library: Opinions, Preferences, and Behaviors." College & Research Libraries 55 (July 1994): 323-341.
This article examines the characteristics and special needs of nontraditional students as shown through a survey. It examines how they used the library, when they wanted to use the library, which library services they felt were important, and how they evaluated some library services. It also looks at some service adjustments that libraries could consider to better accommodate the nontraditional student.

Harrison, Naomi. "Breaking the Mold: Using Educational Pedagogy in Designing Library Instruction of Adult Learners." The Reference Librarian 69/70 (2000): 287-298.
Describes a practical, effective educational model of pedagogy, the "4MAT system," to teach adult students active learning processes and strategies. It shows a systematic approach to delivering instruction that especially addresses the learning styles of adult students.

Jayne, Elaine Anderson. "The Librarian as Bricoleur: Meeting the Needs of Distance Learners." The Reference Librarian 69/70 (2000): 161-170.
Discusses the importance of having a variety of tools and instructional strategies to address the needs of the adult learner. Jayne examines how one university library uses a variety of tools in order to provide instruction to the adult students. The adult students are given flyers, handouts, detailed library guides, contact and referral information, and open lab sessions.

Kerka, Sandra. "Extending Information Literacy in Electronic Environments." New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education 88 (Winter 2000): 27-38. Wilson Web Education Full Text. Newman Lib. Baruch College. 22 April 2001 <http://hwwilsonweb.com>. 
Author explores information literacy as one of literacies needed to thrive in contemporary society. Discusses changes accompanying digital technologies, and access, equity, power and teaching with technology. Includes extensive list of web sites relating to information literacy.

King-Blandford, Marcia. "Adult Students: Wandering the Web with a Purpose." The Reference Librarian 69/70 (2000): 271-285.
Describes how an Adult Liberal Studies Program invited proposals for the design and development of a credit course to help adult learners navigate electronic resources in the library including CD-ROMs, the Internet, and the Web.

Kinsella, Susan. "A Cross-Discipline Study of Traditional and Nontraditional College Students." College Student Journal 32.4 (1998): 632-638.
Details a study that showed that nontraditional students seemed to favor and
request different services (for example: extended library hours and study groups) than the traditional students.

Leverence, Mari Ellen. "A Study of Nontraditional Students' Perceptions of Their Library Research Skills." Reference Librarian 55 (1994): 143-161.
Survey results show that nontraditional students admit to initial anxiety when it comes to using the library and its resources, and do not hesitate to ask for assistance and/or instruction from available staff. Suggests that librarians need to plan extensive and varied ways to advertise available services, and promote ways of accessing such services remotely.

Moslander, Charlotte Diana. "Helping Adult Undergraduates Make the Best of Emerging Technologies." The Reference Librarian 69/70 (2000): 103-118.
Discusses the importance of taking into account the adult student's experiences. It examines the academic and social needs as well as life experiences of different traditional-aged undergraduates.

Nebraska Institute for the Study of Adult Literacy. The Importance of Context in Adult Learning. 27 Sept. 1999. The Nebraska Institute for the Study of Adult Literacy. 8 May 2001 <http://archon.educ.kent.edu/~nebraska/curric/ttim1/art4.html>.
Suggests the following principles to guide the design of effective learning environments for adults: Learners bring prior knowledge and experience with them to class; knowledge is
acquired from experience with complex, meaningful problems; skills and knowledge are best acquired in context; and people do not easily or predictably transfer learning.

Phelps, Marcy. "Designing Web-based Library Instruction for Adult Learners." Colorado Libraries 26 (2000): 19-21.
Provides a description of a web-based tutorial developed for adult students. The tutorial, based on the "Big 6" curriculum, contains six modules. Students participate by following the hyperlinks to complete worksheets. There is also an outline of the design document and a template for the modules. This makes it easier for librarians to make use of the templates.

Roy, Loriene and Eric Novotny. "How Do We Learn? Contributions of Learning Theory to Reference Service and Library Instruction." The Reference Librarian 69/70 (2000): 129-139.
Authors focus on major contributions from learning theory and discuss how these impact the way adults learn. The factors that they think affect learning include attention, perception, memory, continuity, and practice. Article presents five recommendations from learning theory that can be incorporated into instruction.

Sarkodie-Menash, Kwasi, ed. Reference Services for the Adult Learner: Challenging Issues for the Traditional and Technological Era. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press, 2000.
Offers librarians and educators effective approaches for teaching adult patrons how and where to locate information. Information literacy and issues such as technophobia and technostress are addressed.

Tomaiuolo, Nicholas G. "Reconsidering Bibliographic Instruction to Adult Reentry Students: Emphasizing the Practical." Reference Resources Review 18.1 (1990): 49-54.
Title speaks for the article--librarians should build on the adult student's experience, and understand the need for illustration and direction in the assistance they provide.

Web sites

AskERIC <http://ericir.syr.edu/
Service that provides education information, including lesson plans and other useful resources for those planning presentations to adult students. Each section has a brief introduction, followed by the annotations of 10-12 items.

ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocation Education. <http://www.ericacve.org>
Gives access to publications and journals. Among other things, gives links to the U.S. Department of Education and the National Library of Education.

 

DIVERSE POPULATIONS--TEACHING STUDENTS WITH HANDICAPS/DISABILITIES

Applin, Mary E. "Instructional Services for Students with Disabilities." Journal of Academic Librarianship 25.2 (1999): 139-141. Although libraries have moved to remedy most physical obstacles impeding access to their facilities, may have not restructured service provision such as bibliographic instruction. Applin offers ways to meet the needs of students with special needs so they can participate actively in their education and find success.

Landau, Steven and Karen Gourgey. "Development of a Talking Tactile Tablet." Information Technology and Disabilities 7.2 (2001). 5 May 2001 <http://www.rit.edu/~easi/itd/itdv07n2/tablet.htm>. Audio-tactile strategies offer immense promise to open interactive learning and entertainment to people whose vision problems preclude their use of a mouse or a video monitor. Touch Graphics, established in 1997 and created in cooperation with Baruch College’s Computer Center for Visually Impaired People, has created a prototype Talking Tactile Tablet (TTT) and three interactive programs for use with it. Article describes the hardware and operation of the TTT. The three applications are described: "The Match Game," a tactile/audio memory game for children; the first unit in a one-year curriculum on Pre-Calculus, in which audio-tactile computing is used to describe concepts that must be mastered, and a Talking Tactile Atlas of World Maps. Additional applications for the TTT system under consideration are explained. The developers look forward to a time when blind and visually impaired people have the same opportunities for education, entertainment, and camaraderie that the sighted world enjoys through the introduction of accessible computerized multimedia materials.

Mates, Barbara T. Adaptive Technology for the Internet : Making Electronic Resources Accessible to All. Chicago : American Library Association, 2000.
Provides a guide to information providers in establishing accessible websites and acquiring the hardware and software needed by people with disabilities. The book focuses on access to the Internet using large print, voice and Braille.

Schmetzke, Axel. "Online Distance Education – ‘Anytime, Anywhere’ But Not for Everyone." Information Technology and Disabilities 7.2 April 2001. 5 May 2001 <http://www.rit.edu/~easi/itd/itdv07n2/axel.htm>.
Inaccessible design of online resources puts all people with print disabilities at a disadvantage, regardless if they study on-campus or off-campus. The impact is most drastic in an online distance education environment. Goal of author’s study is to gauge web accessibility at two selected sets of distance education sites. Results of study revealed major accessibility problems. Author suggests reasons for the low degree of accessibility.

Sileo, Thomas W. and Mary Anne Prater. "Preparing Professionals for Partnerships with Parents of Students with Disabilities: Textbook Considerations Regarding Cultural Diversity." Exceptional Children 64.4 (1998): 513-516.
Article discusses the need for collaboration between family and school indicating that these strong bonds are critical to the academic and social development of students with disabilities, especially when parents and teachers differ in ethnic, racial, and cultural backgrounds.

Web Sites

Adaptive Technology Resource Center <www.utoronto.ca/atrc>
Total resource site for information concerning access to information. Contains papers, vendor information and reviews.

American Foundation for the Blind (AFB) <www.igc.apc.org/afb>
A leading national resource for people who are blind or visually impaired, the organizations that serve them, and the general public.

Equal Access to Software and Information (EASI) <http://www.rit.edu/~easi/>
Includes information on adaptive hardware and software resources, adaptive technology publications, and designing Web pages for universal design.

Library of Congress – The National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (NLS) <http://lcweb.loc.gov/nls/nls.html>
NLS administers a free library program for Braille and recorded materials circulating to eligible borrowers through a network of cooperating libraries.

National Adult Literacy and Learning Disabilities Center (NALLDC) <novel.nifl.gov/nalld/nalld_states.html>
Publications, hot topics, and links regarding learning disabilities and adult literacy and access.

WebABLE! <www.webable.com>
The World Wide Web information repository for people with disabilities and accessibility solution providers. Provides links to many disability Websites.

 

DIGITAL REFERENCE

Wasik, Joann M., compiler. "Digital Reference Resources." The Virtual Reference Desk 4 April 2001. Information Institute of Syracuse. 9 May 2001 <http://vrd.org/pubinfo/proceedings99_bib.html>. Originally published in Digital Reference Service in the New Millennium: Planning, Management, and Evaluation (Neal-Schuman Publishers, 2000), the bibliography is updated regularly on the VRD Web site. For easier user navigation, resources are listed by category.

Wasik, Joann M. Building and Maintaining Digital Reference Services. ERIC Digest. Syracuse: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology, 1999. EDO IR9904
Digest provides an overview of the growing digital reference movement and presents a six-step process for maintaining and assessing digital reference services.

DISTANCE LEARNING

Dewald, Nancy, Ann Scholz-Crane, Austin Booth, and Cynthia Levine. "Information Literacy at a Distance: Instructional Design Issues." The Journal of Academic Librarianship 26.1 (2000): 33-44.
To develop effective information literacy instruction for distance education students, academic librarians should consider instructional design issues, including important factors in the selection of distance education technologies, the incorporation of active learning, and the assessment of learning to improve instruction.

"Distance Education Daily Updates." The Chronicle of Higher Education. 5 May 2001 <http://chronicle.merit.edu/distance>.
The Chronicle of Higher Education
offers daily updates on coverage of distance education. Archives are also available.

Jackson, Robert J. Web-Based Learning Resources Library. 7 May 2001. University of Tennessee at Knoxville. 8 May 2001 <http://www.outreach.utk.edu/weblearning>.
Extensive links for educators to distance learning courses and other off-campus learning opportunities and links for developing new Web-based courses are offered by Jackson, Director of Distance Learning and Independent Study at the University of Tennessee at Knoxville.

Wright, Carol A. "Information Literacy Within the General Education Program: Implications for Distance Education." The Journal of General Education 49.1 (2000): 23-33.
Wright discusses elements of successful information literacy programs and the challenges of teaching information literacy in the new electronic environments, including providing support for distance education.